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UK Risk Register Details for Xylella fastidiosa

This record was last updated on 06/06/2023

Common Names

  • Alfalfa dwarf
  • Anaheim disease
  • California vine disease
  • Dwarf disease of alfalfa
  • Dwarf disease of lucerne
  • Leaf scald of oleander
  • Leaf scald of plum
  • Leaf scorch
  • Phony disease of peach
  • Pierce's disease of grapevine
  • Variegated chlorosis of citrus

Scenario and Pathways

Scenario for Risk Register

  • show / hide
  • Pest is introduced

Pathway Assessed for Entry to UK

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)

Common Pathways

  • show / hide
  • insect vectors

Risk Ratings and Current Mitigations

Unmitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 4
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 12
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 60

Current Mitigations

  • show / hide

Key mitigation for pest

Regulated quarantine pest



Industry Scheme

Contingency Plan



Mitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 2
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 6
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 30

Proposed Actions

Proposed Actions



Management By Industry

Targeted Survey


Contingency Plan



Distribution and Pest Details


Country / Territory Status Notes
France Present (Limited) Under eradication
Portugal Present (Limited) Under eradication
Spain Present (Limited) Under eradication.
Italy Present
United Kingdom Absent
North America
Canada Present
Mexico Present
United States Present
South America
Argentina Present
Brazil Present
Paraguay Present
Venezuela Present
Iran Present
Israel Present
Taiwan Present
Lebanon Present (Limited)
Central America
Costa Rica Present
Puerto Rico Present

Type of Pest

  • Bacterium

Host or Industry at Risk

  • show / hide

Broadleaved trees and many others

Major Hosts

  • Acacia dealbata Link
  • Acer pseudoplatanus L.
  • Acer rubrum L.
  • Alnus Mill.
  • Amaranthus retroflexus L.
  • Artemisia arborescens L.
  • Asparagus acutifolius L.
  • Carya illinoinensis K.Koch
  • Chenopodium album L.
  • Cistus L.
  • Citrus sinensis (Linnaeus) Osbeck
  • Coffea L.
  • Coprosma repens A.Rich.
  • Cornus L.
  • Cyperaceae
  • Dodonaea viscosa (Linnaeus) Jacquin
  • Eremophila maculata (Ker) F.V.Muell.
  • Conzya sumatrensis Kunth
  • Euphorbia terracina L.
  • Ficus carica L.
  • Fortunella Swing.
  • Fraxinus angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Vahl
  • Grevillea sulphurea A.Cunn.
  • Hebe Comm. Ex Juss.
  • Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don/Guss.
  • Hibiscus L.
  • Juglans regia L.
  • Laurus nobilis L.
  • Lavandula L.
  • Lavandula angustifolia Mill.
  • Lavandula dentata L.
  • Ligustrum L.
  • Liquidambar styraciflua L.
  • Lonicera japonica (var. japonica) (L.) Thunb.
  • Medicago sativa L.
  • Morus rubra L.
  • Myrtus communis L.
  • Nerium oleander L.
  • Olea europaea Linnaeus
  • Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit. Ex Ait.
  • Platanus occidentalis L.
  • Polygala myrtifolia L.
  • Prunus L.
  • Prunus angustifolia Marsh.
  • Prunus armeniaca L.
  • Prunus avium ssp./var. avium L.
  • Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.
  • Prunus domestica ssp. domestica L.
  • Prunus dulcis var. dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb
  • Prunus persica Batsch
  • Quercus rubra L.
  • Quercus suber L.
  • Rhamnus alaternus L.
  • Rosa Floribunda hybrids
  • Salvia rosmarinus Spenner
  • Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link
  • Streptocarpus Lindl.
  • Ulmus americana L.
  • Vaccinium L.
  • Vinca minor L.
  • Vitis labrusca L.
  • Vitis riparia Michx.
  • Vitis vinifera L.
  • Westringia fruticosa (Willd.) Druce
  • Citrus
  • Lavandula x heterophylla Viv.

Threats to Protected Cultivation

  • Both protected crops and outdoor production

Forest Tree Pests and Pathogens

  • Broadleaved

Further Information

PRA Availability

UK (February 2020 plus supplementary data October 2020), EFSA (2019)

Regulation and EPPO listing

  • show / hide

Regulated quarantine pest

Actions Indicated

  • show / hide


Statutory action against findings

General Comments

A bacterial disease with a wide host range and many sub-species and strains. Native to the Americas, it has been introduced to parts of mainland Europe where it is causing very high impacts in some regions, though the potential impacts in the UK are considered to be lower due to the cooler climate here. As a regulated pest, should an outbreak occur, there would be a need for eradication action, which would also result in economic, environmental and social impacts.

Further Information


  • show / hide

Key uncertainty for pest

Impacts due to the pest itself in the UK climate


Current distribution






UK distribution

Risk Records for this Pest