For pests currently absent from the UK, risk of introduction is assessed. For pests already present in the UK risk of spread to maximum extent is assessed. Some other scenarios exist.
The specific pathway(s) that were considered when rating entry of a pest to the UK. These were the pathways considered to present the highest risk of entry.
All pathways the pest may enter or spread around the UK on.
What risks would be without any co-ordinated action. Ratings do take into account how normal grower practises (such as pesticide treatments) would affect risks.
See Guidance Document for more Information
For "Pest is Introduced" the lowest value of Entry or Establishment, as both are required for a successful introduction. For "Pest Spreads to Maximum Extent" this is an expert judgement on the likelihood of this occurrence.
The Likelihood of movement of the pest into the UK on a pathway and transfer of that pest to a suitable host.
The likelihood of the pest surviving and perpetuating in the UK for the foreseeable future after it has entered.
The rate at which a pest can expand, by natural dispersal only, within an area.
The highest value from economic, environmental or social impacts.
The predicted economic impacts of the pest in the UK. This includes direct effects on yield, quality and possible indirect effects such as trade implications.
The proportion of the environmental value of the plant which is likely to be lost through the introduction of the pest.
The predicted social impacts of a pest in the UK, including effects on tourism, amenities and animal and human health.
The value of the hosts or industries at risk from this pest in the UK.
The likelihood multiplied by the impact, which shows the risk to the sector.
Likelihood x Impact x Value at Risk.
All mitigations currently in place for a pest.
Regulated quarantine pest and prohibition of key pathway
Risks rated to take into account the effects of co-ordinated actions that are in place such as EU regulation or industry accreditation schemes.
The hosts or industries in the UK that were considered when rating the pest as being at risk.
PRA not available
The main regulation which applies: The Plant Health (Phytosanitary Conditions) (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020Regulated quarantine pest; regulated non-quarantine pest; regulated pest free area pest: defined in the above legislation.Regulated by emergency measures: individual pieces of legislation to regulate certain pests.General plant health powers apply: plant pests not specifically listed in legislation, but which have been assessed as harmful. Statutory action would be taken against findings, using general powers available in plant health legislation.EPPO listings are advisory categories only, and do not have a legal basis:A1 list is for pests which are not present in any part of the EPPO region.A2 list is for pests which occur in at least one part of the EPPO region.Alert list is an early warning system for emerging pests.We recommend that you consult the original source to confirm the legal status of any given pest.
Regulated quarantine pest. EPPO A1
A summary of priorities for action.
Statutory action against findings.
North American forestry pest which has also been known as Choristoneura freemani. Pest appears well mitigated by regulation, including prohibition of host plants from North America.