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UK Risk Register Details for Euwallacea fornicatus

This record was last updated on 01/09/2023

Common Names

  • Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer

Scenario and Pathways

Scenario for Risk Register

  • show / hide
  • Pest is introduced

Pathway Assessed for Entry to UK

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)
  • Wood packaging material

Common Pathways

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)
  • Non-squared wood
  • Wood packaging material
  • Hitchhiking
  • Firewood

Risk Ratings and Current Mitigations

Unmitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 2
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 6
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 30

Current Mitigations

  • show / hide

Key mitigation for pest

Regulated quarantine pest (as "non-European Scolytidae spp.")



Industry Scheme

Contingency Plan



Mitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 2
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 6
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 30

Proposed Actions

Proposed Actions



Management By Industry

Targeted Survey


Contingency Plan



Distribution and Pest Details


Country / Territory Status Notes
Netherlands Absent Outbreak in botanical glasshouse now eradicated
Italy Absent Outbreak in botanical glasshouse now eradicated
Poland Absent Outbreak in glasshouse, now eradicated
Germany Present (Limited) Outbreak in botanical glasshouse - under eradication
United Kingdom Absent
North America
United States Present (Limited) California
South America
Argentina Present
Samoa Present
Australia Present (Limited) Under official control
South Africa Present
China Present
India Present
Israel Present
Japan Present
Malaysia Present
Sri Lanka Present
Taiwan Present
Thailand Present
Vietnam Present

Type of Pest

  • Insect (Coleoptera)

Host or Industry at Risk

  • show / hide

Broadleaved trees

Major Hosts

  • Acacia Miller
  • Acer L.
  • Ailanthus Desf.
  • Albizia (= Albizzia) Durazz.
  • Alnus Mill.
  • Bauhinia variegata L.
  • Carya Nutt.
  • Cunninghamia R.Br.
  • Erythrina L.
  • Eucalyptus L'Herit.
  • Ficus L.
  • Fraxinus L.
  • Juglans
  • Liquidambar L.
  • Magnolia L.
  • Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Berg
  • Morus L.
  • Ochroma lagopus Sw.
  • Persea americana Mill.
  • Platanus L.
  • Populus L.
  • Quercus L.
  • Ricinus L.
  • Robinia L.
  • Salix L.
  • Sambucus L.
  • Schinus L.
  • Ulmus L.
  • Umbellularia Nees

Threats to Protected Cultivation

  • N/A

Forest Tree Pests and Pathogens

  • Broadleaved

Further Information

PRA Availability

UK (2015) - NB before taxonomy of the species group was revised and clarified

Regulation and EPPO listing

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Provisional quarantine pest (Great Britain), quarantine pest (Northern Ireland) (both as Euwallacea fornicatus sensu lato). Quarantine pest (as non-European Scolytidae spp.). EPPO A2

Actions Indicated

  • show / hide


Statutory action against findings

General Comments

A disease complex involving an ambrosia beetle and fungus (Neocosmospora euwallaceae), native to Asia but now present in a number of other countries. Hosts potentially at risk in the UK include English oak and other broad leaved tree species. Climate is likely to be a limiting factor regarding establishment. Watching brief needed for any pest spread into areas with cooler climates. Regulation is being considered to help mitigate the risks to the UK.

Further Information


  • show / hide

Key uncertainty for pest

Repeated taxonomic revisions for the species group mean that older data often cannot be unambiguously assigned to a species.


Current distribution






UK distribution

Risk Records for this Pest