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UK Risk Register Details for 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus'

Please note: there are high levels of uncertainty associated with the risk scores for this pest.

Pest has been archived

This pest has been assessed for the Risk Register and is considered to pose a low risk to the UK. The information on this pest was correct as of 07/01/2021, but is no longer actively maintained. It will only be updated if new information is received which indicates the potential for a significant increase in risk to the UK.

This record was last updated on 28/06/2021

Common Names

  • dieback (India)
  • greening (South Africa)
  • Huang long bing (yellow dragon disease) (Chinese)
  • leaf mottling (Philippines)
  • vein phloem degeneration (Indonesia)

Scenario and Pathways

Scenario for Risk Register

  • show / hide
  • Pest is introduced

Pathway Assessed for Entry to UK

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)

Common Pathways

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)
  • Cut flowers or branches
  • Fruits or vegetables
  • insect vectors

Risk Ratings and Current Mitigations

Unmitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5]
Spread [1 - 5]
Impact [1 - 5]
Value at Risk [1 - 5]
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25]
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 1

Current Mitigations

  • show / hide

Key mitigation for pest

Regulated quarantine pest (Northern Ireland). Prohibition of key pathway.



Industry Scheme

Contingency Plan



Mitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5]
Spread [1 - 5]
Impact [1 - 5]
Value at Risk [1 - 5]
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25]
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 1

Proposed Actions

Proposed Actions



Management By Industry

Targeted Survey


Contingency Plan



Distribution and Pest Details


Country / Territory Status Notes
United Kingdom Absent
South America
Brazil Present

Type of Pest

  • Bacterium

Host or Industry at Risk

  • show / hide


Major Hosts

  • Aegle Corr. Ex Roxb.
  • Afraegle (Swingle) Engler
  • Calodendrum Thunb.
  • Choisya H.B.K.
  • Citrus sinensis (Linnaeus) Osbeck
  • Clausena Burm.F.
  • Fortunella Swing.
  • Murraya J.G.Koenig Ex L. Corr. Murr.
  • Murraya paniculata (Linnaeus) Jack
  • Pamburus Swingle
  • Poncirus Rafin.
  • Severinia Tenore
  • Triphasia Lour.
  • Vepris Comm. Ex Juss.
  • Citrus

Threats to Protected Cultivation

  • N/A

Forest Tree Pests and Pathogens

  • N/A

Further Information

PRA Availability

PRA not available

Regulation and EPPO listing

  • show / hide

Regulated quarantine pest (Northern Ireland)

Actions Indicated

  • show / hide


No statutory action in Great Britain. Statutory action in line with regulations for Northern Ireland.

General Comments

Bacterial disease of plants in the citrus family, known only from Brazil. More likely to be a concern for countries which grow citrus commercially.

Further Information


  • show / hide

Key uncertainty for pest

Rapid addition in a workshop setting.


Current distribution






UK distribution