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UK Risk Register Details for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

This record was last updated on 12/01/2021

Common Names

  • Pine wilt disease
  • Pine wood nematode

Scenario and Pathways

Scenario for Risk Register

  • show / hide
  • Pest is introduced with vector or finds vector

Pathway Assessed for Entry to UK

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)

Common Pathways

  • show / hide
  • Plants for planting (except seeds bulbs and tubers)
  • Cut flowers or branches
  • Non-squared wood

Risk Ratings and Current Mitigations

Unmitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 4
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 12
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 60

Current Mitigations

  • show / hide

Key mitigation for pest

Regulated quarantine pest



Industry Scheme

Contingency Plan



Mitigated Risks

Likelihood [1 - 5] 2
Spread [1 - 5] 2
Impact [1 - 5] 3
Value at Risk [1 - 5] 5
Likelihood x Impact [1 - 25] 6
UK Relative Risk Rating [1 - 125] 30

Proposed Actions

Proposed Actions



Management By Industry

Targeted Survey


Contingency Plan



Distribution and Pest Details


Country / Territory Status Notes
Portugal Present
United Kingdom Absent
Spain See Notes Under erradication
North America Present
Canada Present
United States Present
Mexico Present
China Present
Japan Present
South Korea Present
Taiwan Present

Type of Pest

  • Nematode (Aphelenchida)

Host or Industry at Risk

  • show / hide


Major Hosts

  • Abies Miller
  • Cedrus Trew
  • Coniferous trees
  • Larix Mill.
  • Pinus L.
  • Pinus armandii Franch.
  • Pinus bungeana Zucc. Ex Endl.
  • Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.
  • Pinus echinata Mill.
  • Pinus elliottii Engelm.
  • Pinus koraiensis Sieb. & Zucc.
  • Pinus lambertiana Dougl.
  • Pinus luchuensis Mayr
  • Pinus massoniana Lamb.
  • Pinus nigra Arnold
  • Pinus pinaster Soland In Ait.
  • Pinus radiata D.Don
  • Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus
  • Pinus tabulaeformis Carriere
  • Pinus taeda L.
  • Pinus thunbergii Parl.
  • Pseudotsuga Carr.
  • Taxus L.
  • Thuja L.
  • Tsuga Carr.
  • Pinus pinaster subsp. escarena (Risso) K.Richt.

Threats to Protected Cultivation

Forest Tree Pests and Pathogens

  • Coniferous

Further Information

PRA Availability

EPPO (2009)

Regulation and EPPO listing

  • show / hide

Regulated quarantine pest, EPPO A2

Actions Indicated

  • show / hide


Statutory action against findings.

General Comments

Nematode pest vectored by Monochamus longhorn beetles. Pest has caused extensive damage in Portugal and areas outside of Europe.

Risk Records for this Pest